The Spanish-American philosopher George Santayana once observed that those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. In this article, Jasper Koops and Merijn Bosman, discuss several turning points in the history of residential mortgage lending in the Netherlands. In chronological order this article will discuss the prevalence of peer-to-peer lending in the pre-1850 era, the rise of specialised mortgage banks in the 1860 to 1950 period, the dominance of financial-services conglomerates in the 1960-2013 period and the rise of non-bank lenders in the post-2013 period.